장수출장샵▷출장부르는법ღ장수고양이 마사지【장수강서구청 마사지】⇖《장수lovegom》✕장수순천 마사지♨장수구로디지털단지 마사지☭장수서현 안마방▤장수마사지 맛사지ツ장수안마방 누드

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

군산출장안마
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

장수출장샵U예약금없는출장샵«장수고양이 마사지【장수마사지 초대】☇《장수울산 마사지》↕장수상남동 마사지ネ장수가산 안마방┸장수이천 마사지⇛장수국산_신작_안마방┌장수익산 마사지

The governments of more than 190 nations 논산대구 전립선 마사지 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

장수출장샵↕출장부르는법⇡장수고양이 마사지【장수시엠립 밤문화 마사지】↬《장수맹인 마사지》┾장수콜걸후기™장수동출장마사지╩장수안마방 사귄╄장수안마방 한국╙장수한국 안마방

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

장수출장샵⇛예약☁장수고양이 마사지【장수노원 마사지】•《장수구미 모텔 추천》☟장수호이안 마사지◑장수아로마 마사지 후기┹장수부산 여관 가격▀장수오피★장수안마방 아다

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 카지노사이트 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

장수출장샵オ예약금없는출장샵⊙장수고양이 마사지【장수video.fc2.com 마사지】➥《장수마사지 토렌토》➻장수여인숙 가격♬장수일본인 안마방㊣장수다낭 마사지 가격┌장수타이 마사지 가격⇁장수삼송역 안마방

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 청주출장 보증금 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

장수출장샵☼예약キ장수고양이 마사지【장수송파 마사지】❦《장수죽전 안마방》⇠장수타이 마사지⇥장수부평 안마방☽장수안마♨장수범계 안마방◎장수오창 안마방

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 서울출장샵 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

장수출장샵장수카오산로드 마사지

  • 서울 마사지 사이트
  • 장수호텔식 마사지
  • 장수출장샵
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    장수출장샵♐출장부르는법↝장수고양이 마사지【장수김포 안마방】❦《장수까치산 마사지》┱장수서울출장안마♠장수춘천 마사지 후기▤장수안마방 국산⇪장수신림 안마방▥장수영화 히든 토렌트

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 창원노원 마사지 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 광주출장안마 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    광주출장안마
    함안안마방 용어 카지노사이트 칠곡커플 마사지 방법
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 바카라사이트 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    장수출장샵┠24시출장샵☺장수고양이 마사지【장수마사지 교육】✑《장수대구 마사지》£장수타이마사지 팁┤장수마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ➼장수마사지 초대남⇛장수맛사지↩장수남자 마사지

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 전주강릉 조건녀 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    장수출장샵⇥예약금없는출장샵♦장수고양이 마사지【장수충주 마사지】◘《장수안마방 알바 단속》﹃장수승모근 마사지チ장수건전한 마사지ラ장수안마방 촬영╟장수연신내 안마방☞장수아산 안마방

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 카지노사이트 .

    옥천울산 명촌 안마방
    파주게이 안마방 loveyangju.xyz 김해거제도 모텔 추천
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    장수출장샵⇏출장부르는법●장수고양이 마사지【장수잠실 마사지】┖《장수거제 옥포 안마방》╝장수송강동 마사지♥장수일본 마사지 몰카↨장수송파 마사지ト장수출장안마ⓛ장수울산 동구 마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. carpanda.xyz .

    장수출장샵╚24시출장샵✉장수고양이 마사지【장수가락시장 마사지】☾《장수안마방 번호》┸장수향남 마사지◢장수야탑 마사지↬장수백석동 마사지╗장수송우리 안마방↕장수상록수역 안마방

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 카지노사이트 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 부산송도 마사지 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    장수출장샵⇈예약⊥장수고양이 마사지【장수역삼역 안마방】ⓛ《장수발산역 안마방》↕장수여교사 마사지♟장수천안 오피스─장수안마방 와꾸1장수커플 마사지 후기♝장수안마방 노출

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    장수출장샵↿출장부르는법┰장수고양이 마사지【장수춘천 모텔 가격】☺《장수대구 전립선 마사지》╝장수마사지 몰카▌장수천안 안마방 후기✘장수마사지 교육♠장수마사지 fc2❧장수안마방 20대

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 정선안마방 창업 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 구미출장안마 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 창원출장샵 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 진해피로회복을 위한 건강 마사지 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 카지노사이트 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    장수출장샵┐예약금없는출장샵•장수고양이 마사지【장수천안 출장】▐《장수마사지 정보》♨장수태국 아로마 마사지⇩장수춘천 마사지⇛장수안마방 무한➴장수안마방 초이스 토렌트♖장수지행 안마방

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 카지노사이트 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 온라인카지노 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 군산출장안마 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    장수출장샵↶예약▀장수고양이 마사지【장수신사역 마사지】♩《장수아빠의 젊은 애인과 끈적한 마사지》レ장수군산 터미널 모텔♀장수안산 줄리엣 마사지△장수산남동 마사지⇟장수안마방 야간♦장수불알 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    전주전립선 마사지 야동
    온라인카지노 김제조건 만남 카톡 카지노사이트
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    장수출장샵セ예약금없는출장샵セ장수고양이 마사지【장수안마방 비용】┉《장수호텔식 마사지》⇜장수안산 줄리엣 마사지⇂장수타이 마사지 팁♀장수출장 타이마사지↧장수오피스텔 아가씨χ장수금정역 안마방

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.장수출장샵장수피로회복 마사지➛장수안마방 무한샷◆《장수렉시벨 마사지》장수태국여행 마사지ο장수동탄 안마방━장수야몽 마사지│장수전립선 마사지 후기◑cpsblog.xyz24시출장샵장수오피스 방.장수안마방 물다이 몰카╚{장수마사지 텀블러}장수구글재펜┒장수미금역 안마방ネ장수1인 마사지₪장수홈 타이 마사지シ장수출장샵장수김무열 마사지장수운서역 안마방➻장수정관 마사지☛〈장수안마방 24시간〉장수안마방 국산┹장수오송 마사지✈장수마사지 서비스❦장수중국전통마사지╬ 장수호치민 리버티 마사지♥장수강남 안마방 추천♚﹛장수출장가격﹜장수동탄 마사지 후기✄장수여성 마사지 후기«장수거제도 모텔 추천⇃장수안마방 단속 일베╕장수국산_신작_안마방╦장수크리스마스 안마방⇛『장수이발소 마사지』장수얼굴 마사지➥장수안마방 fc2→장수금호동 안마방α장수필리핀 마사지╗장수출장최고시♦장수연산동 안마방ラ<장수스웨디시 마사지 정의>장수마사지 서비스↺장수모텔☼장수잇몸 마사지ヨ장수상봉역 안마방⇛24시출장샵하남경주 안마방출장부르는법장수안마방 후장╝장수부산역 안마방☣﹝장수셀룰라이트 마사지﹞장수여관 비용♜장수동탄 마사지♧장수마사지 영어“장수서산 안마방┙장수출장샵장수출장샵대구출장안마장수조건 출장장수아산 마사지장수출장 오피장수포천 안마방장수출장샵장수여자 모텔✲장수역삼 안마방⇎<장수50대 안마방>장수만남 카톡♣장수일산 모텔♗장수안마방 출근부▣장수조건 만남◐인천인덕원 마사지

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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